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December 25, 2018
First of all, air suspension is not equivalent to active suspension.
Air suspension is a suspension system with an air spring as an elastic element. Its biggest feature is variable rigidity and easy adjustment.
Variable stiffness refers to the air spring relative to the leaf spring, coil spring and other vehicle springs, the use of height valve to control, it has a stiffness change with the load characteristics.
The intuitive experience is that the leaf springs of large trucks sit empty, feel run, the car is very high frequency on the road skipping, full load when not jumping, and a little bit of the car feeling. And if you use the air spring, no matter the empty load, it makes you feel very small (and a little bit, but the average person doesn't feel it).
Easy to adjust is to say that its height can be adjusted by inflating the gas inside it (of course, the control system is more complex than a single height valve).
Its stiffness can be adjusted by changing the piston cross section and passing the additional chamber (which makes it the main suspension).
At present, the largest user of air suspension is not a passenger car, but a commercial vehicle (developed countries are trucks, trailers, high equipment, large amount of use, higher rate of passenger equipment, but the amount is not too large, because the base is smaller. We are large and medium-sized buses, equipped with a rate of about 30%, large amount of equipment, truck trailer equipment rate is very low, very low, the amount can be ignored Commercial vehicles are basically the simplest control systems, with up to a height adjustment.
Active suspension is a suspension system that can adjust the damping element (damper) damping and spring (spring) stiffness in real time according to the external conditions.
If only damping can be adjusted, it is called semi-active suspension.
"Hydraulic suspension" is not very familiar, it should be "oil spring suspension", it is characterized by the use of high pressure nitrogen as a spring, and in the shock absorber integrated together.
If contrast air suspension and oil and gas suspension, at least the following differences,
1. work pressure difference, air suspension work pressure is generally around 5-10 bar. Oil and gas suspension generally at 70 bar, in this case, the difference of air spring and bore oil and gas spring under the same load is not small. There are some heavy vehicles (such as a 50 ton master tank) that cannot use the air spring because the space of the spring is limited
2. the air spring needs a compressed air source, and the oil spring needs a hydraulic source. General passenger cars, SUV and other passenger cars do not have compressed air demand, so equipment equipped with air suspension, you need to introduce a special set.